Camoes was the poet of a world in transition. Later, as punishment for his scan- dalous social behaviour, he spent seventeen years in the East in an exile that was only formally voluntary. He was thus the first European poet with con- siderable first-hand experience of worlds and cultures as different as those of southern Africa, India and Indo-China.
All language is made up of the past rather than the future.
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Camoes, even before his exile, had learned to use ostensibly traditional themes and an appar- ently conservative diction to express ideas and experiences for which there was not yet an adequate language. In doing so, he was also contrasting doubt with certainty, rupture with continuity, immanence with transcendence, experience with faith, and, at the end of his wanderings, the fragmentation he found with the totality for which he longed.
From Dante and Petrarch, Camoes developed the notion of love as the intelligible form of the unknown. But whereas his literary masters saw love as a means of ascent towards the unity of a divine spiritual order hidden behind the material world, he sought to find a spiritual unity in the multiplicity of the human experience of love. All he had was language — poetry — a discourse as inconclusive as life itself.
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Mas anda tao confuso que parece que dele Deus se esquece. A sudden mystic revelation? Perhaps not. At most, perhaps, it is the expression of a desire for faith. In the sequence of a poem organised as a rigorous logical dis- cussion of opposed concepts, however, this leap into the dark seems a non sequitur , an absurdity comparable to the absurdity of human existence. Nevertheless, the general course of human des- tinies makes it possible to organize the poems into three broad groups corre- sponding to a gradual, but not necessarily linear change from confidence to doubt and from doubt to despair.
But the Camonian dialectic does not always proceed in an obvious, and still less in a conventional way.
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In any event, the dialec- tical reasoning process always leads to a clear conclusion. But in the dialectical thinking characteristic of Camoes, opposites frequently remain opposed and are accepted as such. In other words, they are regarded not in terms of con- flict but of co-existence and complementarity. The obligatory conclusion was the triumph of reason over appetite. But Camoes approaches this opposition from another angle, making it part of an existen- tial process in which reminiscence is replaced by memory or the precon- ceived idea by lived experience and, with a characteristic shift in emphasis, reaches a different conclusion: the conflict could only be resolved by the rec- iprocal transformation of appetite into reason and reason into appetite.
The implications of this different way of reconciling the perennial con- flict between spirit and matter — between divine love and human sexuality — are not limited to the typically Camonian celebration of eroticism as a vehi- cle for knowledge. Underlying this celebration is a whole new attitude, asserting the value of antithetical complementarities as a desirable and posi- tive expression of true human nature. For him, woman is the other desired in her otherness and not an imagined extension of a lover who consubstantiates himself with his beloved.
But the con- clusion he reaches is the exact opposite: however much the lover may imag- ine, he does not transform himself into the beloved and to claim that this is so is a misplaced fallacy. It is this same fallacy that Camoes mocks in two poems written in the feminine voice, with a lightness of tone that in no way diminishes their con- ceptual seriousness, in which the women complain about the false lovers who prefer the idea to the reality, the abstraction of a contemplative love to the tangible sexuality they are offering and openly desire.
Camoes thus demonstrates that the poetics of neo-Platon ism provides a language code that can be used to signify the opposite of what it supposedly signifies. Sexual use of native women was one of the perks of empire and Camoes, the imperial soldier, must undoubtedly have used and abused the privilege.
The names Camoes gave to his non-European mistresses also reveal an intention to dignify difference.
Romance do homem rico. Three bagatelles. Pela Noite de Natal. Menino nas Palhas. Dormi menino, dormi. Only the number O Milho da Nossa Terra was sung.
Menekiryoku ga agaru! choÌ„ kenkoÌ„hoÌ„
Only Acordai and Jornada were sung. Only Suite n. Portuguese premiere. Only the piece A Festa dos Tabuleiros was sung. Only numbers 3 and 6 were played.
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Only the 1st movemente was played. Only the first two suites were played. Only section nr. Only sections 4, 7 and 8 were performed. The 4th ronde was not performed. Romances nr 1, 2, 3. Songs nr. The 3rd part wasn't yet a part of the work. Only parts 2 and 3 were performed. Parts 9 and 11 to Parts 1 to 8 and The 3rd part was not performed.
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Song nr. The 4th part wasn't yet written. Radio programmes. Television programmes. Berichte, Texte, Bilder einer Zeit. Victor by Christiane Duchesne. Voor altijd, altijd by Bart Moeyaert. Der Weg durch die Bilder by Monika Feth. Der weite Horizont. Die wilde Charlotte. Eine Piratengeschichte. Zece tezaure carpatine by Dumitru Tudor. Alex Borell ja rasistit by Mats Larsson.
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